Punjab “five waters”, also spelled Panjab, is the most populous of the four provinces of Pakistan.
It has an area of 205,344 square kilometres (79,284 square miles) and a population exceeding 82 million, approximately 56% of the country’s total population. Its provincial capital and largest city is Lahore. Punjab is bordered
the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir to the northeast and Punjab and Rajasthan to the east. In Pakistan it is bordered by Sindh to the south, Balochistān and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, and Islamabad and Azad Kashmir to the north.
The province comprises most of the fertile Punjab region,
which also includes the Indian states of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. The area came under Muslim rule in 712 CE, and subsequently came under various other Muslim rulers until the victorious entry of the Mughal Empire in 1526. The province rose to significance during the reign of Shah Jahan
when Lahore became a seat for royal family, the legacy of which is seen today in its rich display of Mughal architecture. The region was divided during the Partition of India, when the majority Muslim areas became the Pakistani province and majority non-Muslim areas remaining part of India.
Punjab’s geography mostly consists of the alluvial plain of the Indus River and its four major tributaries in Pakistan, the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, and Sutlej rivers
. There are several mountainous regions, including the Sulaiman Mountains in the southwest part of the province, and Margalla Hills, Salt Range, and Pothohar Plateau in the north. Agriculture is the chief source of income and employment in Punjab; wheat and cotton are the principal crops. Since independence, Punjab has become the seat of political and economic power; it remains the most industrialised province of Pakistan. It counts for 39.2% of large scale manufacturing and 70% of small scale manufacturing in the country.Its capital Lahore is a major regional cultural, historical, and economic centre.